【Adaptation】 TTA papers in 2022 and Urban scene segmentation

  • TTA papers in CVPR22 and Urban scene segmentation

Urban scene segmentation

1. Cars Can’t Fly up in the Sky: via Hight-driven Attention

  • Paper
  • Motivation
    1. The pixel-wise class distributions are significantly different from each other among horizontally segmented sections. Thus, capturing the height-wise contextual information should be weighted during pixel-level classification.
    2. Most semantic segmentation networks do not reflect unique attributes such as perspective geometry and positional patterns.
  • Method
    • Hight-driven attention networks (HANet) is an add-on module that is easy to attach and cost-effective.
    • As illustrated in Tab. 1 and Fig. 1, the uncertainty (entropy) is reduced if we divide an image into several parts horizontally.


2. Standardized Max Logits for Identifying Unexpected Road Obstacles

  • Paper
  • Motivation
    • [problem1] Existing approaches need external datasets or additional training. → [solution1] One possible alternative is to use max logit (i.e. maximum values among classes before the final softmax layer.) → [problem2] the distribution of max logit of each predicted class is different from each other. → [solution2] standardizing the max logit.
    • High prediction scores (e.g. softmax probability or max-logit) indicate low anomaly (unexpected object) scores and vice versa.
  • Methods
    1. Standardized max logits
    2. Iterative boundary suppression: replacing the high anomaly scores of boundary regions with low anomaly scores of non-boundary pixels.
    3. Dilated smoothing: both boundary and non-boundary regions are smoothed.


Test-time Adaptation in 2022

  • 이 논문들을 읽으니까 진심으로 ECCV 내 논문에 자신감이 생긴다. 결과가 어떻든 자신감을 가지자. 모두 Method적으로 큰 Novelty 없고.. forward 여러 번하는걸 괜찮은 듯이 넘어가고… 별거 하나 없다. 그냥 논문 조금 잘 썼네. 라는 생각이 든다. 따라서! 다음엔 더 잘 할 수 있겠다. Oral & Best 별거 없다.
  • 따라서 제발 하나의 아이디어, 실험하는데 너무 오랜 시간을 소모하지 말자. 가정이 조금이라도 틀렸다면 빠르게 버리고 넘어가라. 아래 논문들 모두 정말 (1) 간단한 Method로 (2) 간단하게 실험하고 (3) 정교하게 논문써서! 논문이 되버렸다. 그렇담 나는 더 잘 할 수 있다.

1. SHOT: Do we really need to access the source data? ICML, 2020

  • Paper
  • Summary: Source free (Offline) / Entropy minimization + Pseudo labeling
  • Methods
    1. Freeze the classifier and optimize the target-specific feature extractor (backbone).
    2. Source model Generation: cross-entropy loss + label smoothing technique.
    3. Target training
      1. information maximization (LM loss) = Entropy loss + diversity-promoting loss
      2. Self-supervised pseudo labeling = Prototype distance pseudo label
  • Notes: Classification / Complex wrighting / simple methods / large experiments / not good figure

2. AdaContrast: Contrastive Test-time Adaptation. CVPR, 2022

  • Paper
  • Key methods
    1. Memory bank (queue) of length M: Storing (1) pred-outputs for contrastive learning and (2) prob-outputs for pseudo labels
    2. Loss1: Generating pseudo label
      • Bank [ pred-output of length M + current-batch pred ]
      • According to current-batch pred, Find N neighbors with nearest neighbor algorithm.
      • Average of N neighbors = soft voted pseudo label
      • pseudo label →cross-entropy loss
    3. Loss2: Contrastive learning
      • Key: Bank [ prob-output of length M ]
      • Query: current-batch prob
      • InfoNCE → only considers negative prob in the Bank
    4. Loss3: Additionally, regulation loss = diversity regularization loss.


3. When does TTT fail or thrive? NIPS, 2021

  • Paper
  • Methods
    1. Distribution alignment
      • TTT can lead to failures. This is because of the unconstrained update.
      • (method1) offline feature summarization: Storing the mean and covariance matrix. (no agnostic pre-train model)
      • (method2) online moment matching: Distribution alignment Loss → BUT, (problem1) this strategy has a problem with a large number of classes.
      • (solution1) (method3) batch-queue decoupling: maintaining large encoded features in a mini-batch manner. (i.e., Global view alignment, not local (one class) view alignment)
    2. Contrastive self-sup learning
      • It is applied in both training and testing.
  • Notes: Classification / Good distribution alignment for specifically TTA


4. Continual Test-Time Domain Adaptation. CVPR, 2022

  • Paper
  • Motivation
    1. Continually changing environments where the target domain distribution can change over time. i.e., the distribution shift over time.
  • Method
    • Augmentation-averaged predictions: Consistency training
    • Stochastic Restoration: Preserve source knowledge in the long term. Preventing strong domain shift resulting in catastrophic failure.
  • Notes: The table containing experiment results looks brilliant.


5. Parameter-free Online Test-time Adaptation

  • Paper
  • TTA sometimes fails catastrophically. Instead of adapting the parameters of a pre-trained model, they only adapt its output by finding the latent assignments that optimize a manifold-regularized likelihood of the data.
  • A correction of the output probabilities is more reliable and practical than NAMs (network adaptation methods).
  • The proposed method is called Laplacian Adjusted Maximum-likelihood Estimation (LAME). This could be viewed as a graph clustering of the batch data, penalized by a KL term discouraging substantial deviations from the source model predictions.
  • The written method is hard to understand. So, I need to figure it out by the code.
    • It seems that offline data-access is needed (to find a latent assignment vector z in the paper).
    • It seems that k nearest neighbors algorithm is used in the code.
  • Notes: Output optimization, No parameters optimization, No concern about catastrophic failure.

6. Sketch3T: TTT for Zero-Shot SBIT

  • paper
  • Consistency tarining
  • Meta learning

7. Ev-TTA: TTA for Event-Based Object Recognition

  • paper
  • Consistency tarining

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